Spain Billon

Metal:
State:
Issue year(s):
1369

1369-1379, Spain, Henry II of Castile. Billon Noven Coin


Denomination: Noven

References: AB. 501.5.

Mint Period: 1369-1379

Mint Place: Zamora (CA)

Material: Billon (low grade silver alloy)

Diameter: 19mm

Weight: 0.68gm


Obverse: Rampart lion (arms of León) left within double square border. Legend around.


Reverse: Castle with three towers (arms of Castile) within double square border. Mint letters (CA) below. Legend around.


 


The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715.


Zamora (Spanish pronunciation: [θaˈmoɾa]) is a city and municipality of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is the capital of the province of Zamora. The city straddles the Duero river. With its 24 characteristic Romanesque style churches of the 12th and 13th centuries it has been called a “museum of Romanesque art”. Zamora is the city with the most Romanesque churches in all of Europe. The most important celebration in Zamora is the Holy Week.



Henry II (13 January 1334 – 29 May 1379), called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricidal (el Fratricida), was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara. He became king in 1369 by defeating his half-brother Peter the Cruel, after numerous rebellions and battles. As king he was involved in the Fernandine Wars and the Hundred Years' War.


Henry was as hostile to the Jews as Peter had been friendly. In order to pay Bertrand du Guesclin’s mercenaries, he imposed a war contribution of twenty thousand gold doubloons on the already heavily oppressed community of Toledo, and issued an order to take all the Jews of Toledo as prisoners, to give them neither food nor drink, and if they still refused to raise this enormous sum, to sell their property, both movable and immovable, at auction. Nonetheless, he was compelled, owing to his financial straits, to have recourse to Jewish financiers. He made Don Joseph Pichon his chief tax-collector (contador major), and appointed several Jews farmers of the taxes.


The demands of the Cortes in Toro (1369) and in Burgos (1374 and 1377) against the Jews harmonized perfectly with Henry’s inclinations. He ordered the Jews to wear the humiliating badge, and forbade them to use Christian names. He further ordered that for short loans Christian debtors should repay only two-thirds of the principal. Shortly before his death Henry declared that Jews should no longer be permitted to hold public office.


Henry was potentially the first ruler since the Visigothic King Ergica to implement anti-Jewish policies in the Iberian Peninsula.


 

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Posted by: anonymous  2024-02-24
1369-1379, Spain, Henry II of Castile. Billon Noven Coin. (XF!) Zamora mint! Denomination: Noven References: AB. 501.5. Mint Period: 1369-1379 Mint Place: Zamora (CA) Condition: Dark toning, otherwise XF! Material: Billon (low grade silver alloy) Diameter: 19mm Weight: 0.68gm Ob ...

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